The glossary includes definitions of terms used in the captions, and offers a general vocabulary useful in referring to the materials and subjects found in NATURAL SURFACES.
Spike. A cluster of sessile flowers along a central axis; an inflorescence. See figure G-7.

Spiral topiary. See Topiary.

Spore. A reproductive cell that has no embryo, as do seeds, but rather is a mass of protoplasm with a nucleus.

Spreading. See Tree shape.

Standard. Term describing: (1) a plant that grows from a single stalk but needs external support to stand alone; (2) a tree with at least 6 feet (1.8 m) of trunk before the first branch; (3) a shrub that is cleared of lower branches, and is trained to have a single stem from the base to the first foliage. See also Tree shape.

Standard topiary. See Topiary.

Stilt hedge. A hedge variation in which dense foliage is pruned above a base of bare branches. Also called pole hedge.

Stone. Rock selected or processed for construction or some other use.

Stone fruits. Members of the genus Prunus, all of which have a single pit (stone) surrounded by flesh. Examples: Plums, cherries, peaches.

Strata. (Sing. stratum.) Geologically, the layers, usually horizontal, of rock formations.
Succession. The development of plant communities after the virgin habitat and flora have been disturbed.

Succulent. A plant with fleshy stems and leaves adapted to retain water. Example: Aloe.

Tapestry hedge. A hedge made by intermingling two or more types of plants.

Tender. Term describing plants that will not survive a freeze. Example: Impatiens.

Toadstool. The common name for the fruiting body of a fungus with an umbrella-shaped cap.

Tomentose. Term describing a plant surface covered with short, soft, woolly hairs. Example: Salvia officinalis, common sage.

Topiary. The art of training plants to grow in specific shapes (often object-oriented) by means of pruning and clipping. Standard topiary consists of a single unbranched vertical stem with pruned foliage usually forming a round single crown. The shape may also be achieved by grafting rather than pruning. Poodle topiary is a variation of standard topiary with multiple balls of foliage rather than a single crown. Spiral topiary is a variation of standard topiary with the foliage clipped around the single stem so that it forms a coil. The stem may be trained to grow in a corkscrew twist. Flat topiary consists of low hedges or other clipped plants that form level beds, for example, knot gardens and parterres.
Tree. A perennial woody plant that has a strongly defined trunk with a head of branches, the crown or canopy.

Tree shape. Term descriptive of branch direction and canopy growth. Some common shapes are columnar (taller than it is wide); conical; fastigiate (with branches that grow erect, parallel, and close together); globe; pyramidal, shrubby, spreading (develops with predominantly lateral branches); standard (having at least 6 feet [1.8 m] of trunk before the first branch), weeping. See figure G-8.
Trellis. A framework used to support and direct vining and climbing plants. traditionally constructed in a diamond or grid pattern.

Trifoliate. See Compound leaf.

Tropical. Term describing plants that will not survive below 40 – 45 degrees F (4–7 degrees C).

Twig. The individual unit of new growth of a woody plant.

Twining vine. See Climber.